Hydrology at the Pharaohs

To ensure the availability of adequate water for their crops, ancient Egyptians had reached to the means by which they could be handled with seasonal flooding, which took about six months; agricultural land which becomes completely submerged by water. That is why farmers dig irrigation canals and storage basins created which was held by building small dams; for the delivery of water to distant lands and do not reach the high flood waters. As they were transporting water in two buckets; pendant from the yoke carried on the shoulders. He invented the pallets, for the same purpose, in the era of the modern state. It consists of the pallets in place a long wooden Ttzn based on a column or head, or stuck in a wooden frame. Can Shadouf to move to a central top and bottom; or from side to side. In use; pull factor applicable to the bottom, in order to fill the bucket with water: Verwah weight balance automatically to where the agent can empty it in the irrigation canal. This has helped to irrigate the upland; which contributed to increased crop yields.
Sakia tool and other tools of irrigation in ancient Egypt; and consists of a large number of small containers installed in the wheel of a round (wheel) is linked to the branch linked to the cow (an animal) runs a branch that runs the wheel (wheel): turn. And continued use of waterwheel in the Ptolemaic period, and then developed after that, during this period and the governors of the successors of the Muslims.
During his stay in Alexandria, Archimedes invented the Greek world machine mandolins; They are also known under the name of the "Archimedes screw." Mandolins and consists of a wooden spiral disk surrounded Mcqhob (slotted). When placed in the bottom water and administered mandolins; cause the snails to raise water to higher levels.
The collection of taxes on crops in the Ptolemaic period, by order of the governors; on the basis of levels of flooding. To determine the water levels, officials used a portable tool known as the "scale of the Nile"; was probably a long stick of bamboo (jungle) grazed by signs of different levels. The temples were built that provided the standards of the Nile, at sites along river.
After the Islamic conquest of Egypt, kings and sultans of several projects; to dig canals and dams; for the delivery of water of the Nile: for use in agriculture and drinking purposes. When built the Sultan Saladin walls around Cairo; surfaces were used as conduits for water. And transferred water from these channels, through the pipes of pottery, for the supply of housing the water that was distributed to the kitchens and baths and basins. And established the Sultan al-Nasir Muhammad channel carry large amounts of flowing water, and four of the channels. The function Sakka important functions in the era of the caliphs and governors of Egypt's Muslim. The allantoic the person responsible for the transfer of water from reservoirs; to mosques, schools and public drinking fountains. As was the case with the governors in the Greco - Roman, the Muslim governors also decided to assess the taxes collected from farmers: based on the level of the Nile flood. They also used a measure of the Nile, and appointed to that on the island of kindergarten staff in charge of registration of the water level every day, according to gauge the Nile island